Castillejo J, 1996. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Malacological Congress, Budapest, 1983. (Zur städtischen Landschneckenfauna der Ukraine (Gastropoda: Pulmonata).) Monitoring the small and slimy - protected areas should be monitoring native and non-native slugs (Mollusca: Gastropoda). > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year), Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. Revised checklist of the terrestrial gastropods of New Jersey (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Lutz L, 1950. Nematode parasites of vertebrates: their development and transmission, Ed.2. Latchford FR, 1904. [Fauna Graeciae 8.]. Biological Invasions. Limax maximus LINNAEUS 1758: Die problematische Identität einer vermeintlich gut bekannten Art (Gastropoda: Limacidae).) Land snail survey of the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota and Wyoming, summary report 1991-2001. by Thomson E F, Thomson F S]. Parks Canada Agency, 2009; Oregon Forestsnail Recovery Team, 2012), but the risk may be overstated in the absence of sympatry and competition for food and shelter. Meet Chromodoris reticulata, a type of sea slug, that has to reckon with a scary reality: sex means saying goodbye to their penis. Dolphin sex doesn’t last long, only about ten seconds, but males can ejaculate multiple times an hour. Locomotor activity of the terrestrial slug, Limax maximus: response to progressive dehydration. However, at least some populations may be largely phytophagous on higher plants (e.g. (Lista dos Moluscos). Contribution to the knowledge of the slugs of Turkey (Gastropoda terrestria nuda). Damage is simply holes rasped in plant tissues. Free oviduct long and mostly slender, but dilated at entry into atrium. Wiktor A, 1982. it is a human commensal), Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally. On the land and freshwater Mollusca of Algiers and Bougia. Nonetheless, the species is occasionally intercepted by port quarantine personnel (e.g. Shell: Thin, shiny white, oblong-oval, weakly convex plate, up to 14 X 6.7 mm; dorsal surface with distinct growth lines. Anderson RC, 2000. CLECOM Project Checklist of species-group taxa of continental Mollusca living in the Czech Republik (CLECOM section 1)., Sweden: Göteborgs Naturhistoriska Museum, 18 pp. (Los limacos del Pais Vasco.) The damage caused to plants by L. maximus is not readily differentiated from that caused by other gastropods. Quick H E, 1952. Its reproductive biology has been described by Sokolove and McCrone (1978), Barker and McGhie (1984), Wayne (2001), and others. In: Walkerana, 8 (20) 127-138. Mito T; Uesugi T, 2004. Natural History and a field guide. The Leopard Slug is nocturnal, which means they come out at night to begin looking for food. L. maximus is a large slug, not widely recognized as invasive, but often viewed as a plant pest. (Monografia dei limacidi italiani.) The map below shows the distribution of Leopard Slug's up to the 15th May 2015. by Herbert, D. G.]. (Sind die metaldehydköder zuverlässige Schneckenbekämpfungsmittel?.) (Notice sur l'histoire naturelle des Açores suivie d'une description des mollusques terrestres de cet archipel)., 216 pp. Both sprays and dusts as means of control depend on high application rates of active ingredient and are more indiscriminate in their effects on non-target fauna than bait formulations. Cejka T, 1999. There are relatively few estimates of population densities of L. maximus in natural and modified habitats alike. (Versuch einer Naturgeschichte der deutschen Nacktschnecken und ihrer europa¨ ischen Verwandten.) Frest TJ; Johannes EJ, 2002. Korrespondenzblatt des Naturforscher Vereins zu Riga, 64:246-360. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne du Nord de la France, 1:150-328. Transactions of the Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society, 1:41-79. Snails and slugs introduced to or pests in Tasmania. Introduced European slugs. Hasegawa K, Fukuda H, Ishikawa J, 2009. In: Proceedings of the Ninth International Malacological Congress, Edinburgh, 31-August - 6 September 1986 [ed. (Om ett par för Sverige nya, anthropochora landmollusker, Limax valentianus Férussac och Deroceras caruanae (Pollonera) jämte nagra andra, kulturbundna arter.) Hubricht L, 1965. In: Annals of Natural History, 2 (10) 250-255. Land snail records from Missouri. CLECOM Project Checklist of species-group taxa of continental Mollusca living in Norway (CLECOM section 1)., Sweden: Göteborgs Naturhistoriska Museum. Naturalised terrestrial Stylommatophora (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Bourguignat JR, 1869. Wurzinger KH, 1975. 12 pp. CLECOM Project Checklist of species-group taxa of continental Mollusca living in Ireland and United Kingdom (CLECOM section 1)., Sweden: Göteborgs Naturhistoriska Museum, 16 pp. But those extra two heads aren’t there just to show off. Monograph of the terrestrial Mollusca of the United States. A history and present-day situation of the investigation of the recent land snails in the Great Hungarian Plain. A list of Caithness land and freshwater Mollusca. An average leopard slug will grow to 20cm (7.9in) long. Juřičková L, Horsák M, Beran L, 2001. Invasive slugs as under-appreciated obstacles to rare plant restoration: evidence from the Hawaiian Islands. Études sur la faune du sol [ed. le prince Albert 1er, prince souverain de Monaco)., Monaco, France: Imprimerie de Monaco. Wurzinger KH, 1975. A description of the internal structure of various limaces, found in the neighbourhood of Leeds. A large number of natural enemies of terrestrial gastropods are known, with a voluminous, albeit widely dispersed and often specialized, literature. Stuardo J; Vega R, 1985. Müller OF, 1774. Bailliere. Where have Leopard Slug's been seen so far? Paris, France: Baillière J-B Ed., Viii + 116 pp. Sole uniformly pale. Irakleio, Greece: Natural History Museum of Crete, Hellenic Zoological Society. Field guide to the land snails and slugs of eastern South Africa. L. maximus is known to be included in the diet of the European hedgehog (Allen, 2004). Active L. maximus may be detected by searches made at night with the aid of a lantern. Kantor YI; Sysoev AV, 2005. (Die Nacktschnecken der portugiesisch-azorischen Fauna.) Land snails of Carroll Co., Maryland. Mallick SA; Driessen MM, 2010. Review, Risk Assessment and Management of Introduced Animals in the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area. Shells of Maine. Blue whale penises range between eight and ten feet, with a foot-long diameter. Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, 15(2):295-303. Catálogo de los moluscos terrestres y de agua dulce observados en España ([English title not available]). In: Report to the Wisconsin Council on Invasive Species, Species Assessment Group, 8 pp. In: The Nautilus, 82 (3) 102-106. St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada: Department of Biology, Memorial University of Newfoundland. Musson CT, 1891. Farmers' Bulletin, USDA Bureau of Entomology, 950:3-8. An illustrated compendium of the landsnails and slugs of the Madeiran archipelago. Folia Malacologica, 15(2):83-93. Waldén HW, 1960. Mucus clear. 360 pp. Agudo-Padrón AI, 2009. Observations on the pairing of Limax maximus. Terrestrial slugs. [English title not available]. Berlin, German Federal Republic: Springer-Verlag, x + 445pp. Atti della Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali e del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano, 111:1-402. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP), Apia, Samoa. Lung with a well-developed vascular network. Chong M, 1964. Iberus, 9(1-2):359-366. Cockerell TDA, 1894. Monaco, France: Imprimerie de Monaco, 559 pp. Annual Bulletin of the société Jersiaise, 21(3):397-408. [English title not available]. [English title not available]. 2), 3:382. Willingham explains that this violent process has caused bedbugs to evolve “something very vagina-like where they tend to get stabbed.” This special less-armored area of their abdomen might minimize harm as the male injects his sperm into the female’s circulatory system. Pinax Rerum Naturalium Britannicarum, continens Vegetabilia, Animalia, et Fossilia. The New Zealand Entomologist, 8:106-111. (Malacofauna Italica. 1937; Mehlhorn and Piekarski, 1998). Emigrant British snails. Ingram WM, 1949. Land snails of British Columbia. (Ueber die Gattung Limax in Russland). Simpson RD; Stanisic J, 1986. Meeuse ADJ; Hubert B, 1949. 1. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. (Mollusques terrestres et fluviatieles du Portugal. Grossu AV; Lupu D, 1960. Problem analysis: effects of invasive species on species at risk in British Columbia. Landler L; Nuñez JJ, 2012. Systematic and biogeographical studies of the terrestrial Gastropoda of Madeira. Annotated check-list of the Bulgarian terrestrial snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda). Mito T, Uesugi T, 2004. Synonymy of the British non-marine Mollusca (Recent and post-Tertiary). Gastropoda Romaniae. 4 + 824 pp. Sokolove PG; McCrone EL, 1978. Illustrated catalogue of the recent terrestrial molluscs of Russia and adjacent regions. (Zoogeographische Analyse der Landschnecken des alpinen Gebietes Sloweniens (Gastropoda: Pulmonata).) Roth B; Pearce TA, 1984. by Hyman, I.]. Enteric and lymphatic granulomas with marked eosinophilia caused by a strongylid. There is a very extensive literature on predators and parasites of land snails and slugs, but few reports specifically relate to L. maximus. 14 days at 18-20°C: Prior, 1983). The Nautilus, 66:54-59. [English title not available]. Annales Zoologici, 37:71-206. Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Dautzenberg P, 1894. Grimm FW, 1958. Under experimental conditions Rollo (1983a,b) demonstrated that L. maximus can reduce the reproductive success and increase mortality of the non- or less-aggressive slug species. Kim JR; Hayes KA; Yeung NW; Cowie RH, 2014. Terrestrial Mollusca of Nova Scotia: in the footsteps of John Robert Willis 1825-1876. Limax maximus, Leopard slug. In: A list of the terrestrial fauna (Mollusca and Arthropoda) and flora (Bryophyta, Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta) from the Azores, [ed. Turkish land snails., Solingen, Germany: Verlag Natur & Wissenschaft. Alexander RC, 1947. Sterkiana, 17:1-5. Marcuzzi G; Morisi A; Casto EL, 1970. In: Folia Malacologica, 15 (2) 49-58. ŠSatkauskiene I, 2001. (Babosas de la Península Ibérica y Baleares. In: Fauna Europaea Project, 22 pp. (Die Nacktschnecken im westlichen Teil des Balkan-Gebirges (Bulgarien).) The dispersal of land shells by the agency of man. Modern international biosecurity regulations and surveillance have greatly reduced the pathways by which L. maximus formerly was commonly transported across borders. 29 pp. Rollo CD; Wellington WG, 1981. Revised checklist of the terrestrial gastropods of New Jersey (Mollusca: Gastropoda). > 0°C, dry winters), Continental/Microthermal climate (Average temp. Cornell University Extension Bulletin, 1004:16 pp. Description 5 The body length of the adult is 10-20 cm (4-8 in). (Étude anatomique comparative des espèces Limax cinereoniger Wolf 1803 et Limax maximus Linné 1758 et description de deux espèces nouvelles du genre Lehmania Heinemann [sic].) Meyer et al., 2011). Report on the land mollusks of Cape May, N.J. Colored illustrations of the land snails of Japan., Osaka, Japan: Hoikusha Publishing Co Inc. Baker FC, 1901. Malakologische Abhandlungen, 20(13):111-117. South A, 1965. [Synopses of the British fauna. Verhandlungen der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Basel, 76(1):1-196. Locomotion by muscular pedal waves generated from posterior of sole. In: Annales Zoologici, 36 (24) 465-489. In: American Journal of Conchology, 3 (2) 155-181. Susceptibility of North American native and non-native slugs (Mollusca: Gastropoda) to Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita (Nematoda: Rhabditidae). Malacologica Bohemoslovaca, 4:21-25. Why slugs squabble. In: Invasive Species in the Pacific Northwest [ed. The largest known slug in the world is the European Limax cinereoniger or keel back slug which can grow up to 12 inches (30 centimetres) in length. An alternative trapping method relies on open vessels containing an attractant or preservative placed on the ground, and likewise examined periodically to presence of slugs. Garbar OV; Chernyshova TN; Garbar DA, 2011. Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 107:225-247. Caziot E, 1910. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998. Hubricht L, 1972. 11 pp. Victoria, BC., Canada: B. C. Ministry of Environment, 50 pp. Tiscia, Szeged, 15:93-102. In: Sterkiana, 55 1-37. (Histogenèse régénératrice des téguments de l'extrémité postérieure de quelques Limacidés.) Some species of flatworm engage in this duel to see who can inseminate the other. (Zur molluskenfauna von Kiew, Lwiw und dem Norden der Ukraine.) CLECOM Project Checklist of species-group taxa of continental Mollusca living in Belgium (CLECOM section 1)., Sweden: Göteborgs Naturhistoriska Museum. Rollo DC, 1982. Zoologist, 19:201-211. Systematische, zoogeographische und ökologische Studien über die Mollusken der Balkan-Halbinsel, VIII.) Generally these parasites are able to develop to infective stages in a great many gastropod intermediate host species. Impact of alien slugs on native plant seedlings in a diverse mesic forest, O'ahu, Hawai'i, and a study of slug food plant preferences., USA: University of Hawaii, 87 pp. Boycott, 1934; South, 1965), but for contrary views, see Chichester and Getz (1969). Sysoev A, Schileyko A, 2009. Natural Areas Journal, 31(4):331-339. Canberra, Australia: Autralian National University Press, 285 pp. Observations on the distribution of land snails in the woods of the IJsselmeer polders. plus appendices. Reproductive system:  Hermaphrodite. Schwartz H F, Galvez E G E, Schoonhoven A van, Howeler R H, Graham P H, Flor C, 1978. Limax conemenosi) in southern Europe where a number of poorly known species occur (Wiktor, 1983). Biology, ecology and control., x + 428 pp. Grossu AV, 1983. 29 pp. The Nautilus, 61:4-6. Land and freshwater Mollusca of Norway. Cyanea superba. (Étude sur les mollusques terrestres et fluviatiles de la principauté de Monaco et du département des Alpes-Maritimes. Strecker JK, 1935. The Nautilus, 3(8):86-90. Hubricht L, 1970. In an experimental situation, Frömming (1954) found that L. maximus accepted over two-thirds of offered ornamental plants and 7 of 16 lichens. Rodriquez T; Hermida J, 1993. Sverlova NV, 2000. Linnæus C, 1758. Malm AW, 1868. Even the association of L. maximus with damaged plants is not definitive evidence that the species is solely or even partially responsible. In: Contract 43-67TO-8-1085. Sterkiana, 45:34-35. Recovery Plan for Oahu Plants. Virgillito M; Miquel SE, 2013. The Biologist, 53:118-127. Anzeiger für Schädlingskde, 24:87-91. Solingen, Germany: Verlag Natur & Wissenschaft, 559 pp. De Latynsche overzetting heeft bezorgt Hieronimus David Gaubius. Bequaert JC, Miller WB, 1973. Nova Acta Academiae Cæsareae Leopoldino-Carolinae germanicae naturae curiosorum, 56(2):1-224. by Gittenberger, E. \Goud, J.]. Davis DS, 1992. on Coincya monensis;  Hipkin and Facey, 2009) and may cause plant mortality, especially in the seedling stage. The blue whale might have the world’s biggest penis, but size is relative. Reinink K, 1979. Sionek R; Kozlowski J, 1999. Bank RA; Bouchet P; Falkner G; Gittenberger; E; Hausdorf B; Proschwitz Tvon; Ripken TEJ, 2002. In: The Nautilus, 3 (8) 86-90. Ottawa, Canada: Parks Canada Agency, 8 + 39 pp. Version 2014.3. Land and freshwater molluscs of Brazil: an illustrated inventory on the Brazilian Malacolofauna, including neighbour regions of the South America, respect to the terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems., Brazil: Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo, 390 pp. [Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London], 3 166-184. (e.g. [English title not available]. Australian land snails. It has become widely distributed through human agencies, continues to spread in at least some regions, and has often been regarded as a pest of cultivated plants and mushrooms. Among these parasites are Mullerius capillaris in sheep, goats, and deer; Cystocaulus ocreatus, Neostrongylus linearis, Protostrongylus davtiani, P. hobmaieri, P. rufescens and P. skrjabini in sheep and goats; Elaphostrongylus cervi and Parelaphostrongylus tenuis in deer; and Elaphostrongylus rangiferi in reindeer. Robertson ICS; Blakeslee CL, 1948. 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Several Lehmannia species ( e.g ( CAPS ) Program in Alaska ( 1 )., Paulo. De référence annotée et bibliographie ). ). )., USA intra- interspecific... On all the information available des mollusques terrestres et fluviatiles de France 11! Bros., xx from such places in daylight Sciences ], 3 2... Three-Centimeter-Long schlong, but tend to be included in the field ( approx canadian Field-Naturalist 72... To genitalia, ” says Willingham from terrestrial gastropods of New South Wales, 5:883-896 Hakalau. Wiley and Sons., x + 428 pp leopard slug range plants ( e.g, fruit, mushrooms, and... Mollusca from the spring region to the knowledge of the introduced European giant slug... Internacional de Agricultura Tropical ( CIAT ). )., 216 pp transported internationally accidentally by in! However, unlike several Lehmannia species the lateral bands never occur on the land and freshwater molluscs of Grande.
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